Books and articles

  • Avant, D., “The rise of Private Security Companies”, Foreign Policy, 13 June 2005.
  • Bina, M.W., “Private Military Contractor liability and accountability after Abu Ghraib”, John Marshall Law School, Summer 2005.
  • Bondía García, D., “Un actor escasamente visualizado en el conflicto armado colombiano: los mercenarios”, in Torroja, H., (dir.), La privatización del uso de la fuerza armada Política y derecho ante el fenómeno de las “empresas militares y de seguridad privadas”, J. M. Bosch, Barcelona, 2009.
  • Briody, D., The Halliburton Agenda: The Politics of Oil and Money, John Wiley & Sons, 2004.
  • Brown, N., The Fate of CPA Orders in Iraq after June 30, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, June 22, 2004.
  • Butazu, A-M., European Practices of Regulation of PMSCs and Recommendations for Regulation of PMSCs through International Legal Instruments, The Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces (DACF), Geneva, 30 September, 2008.
  • Cameron, L., “Private military companies and their status under International Humanitarian Law”, International Review of the Red Cross (ICRC), Vol. 88, Nº 863, September 2006.
  • Cassese, A., “Mercenaries: lawful combatants or war criminals”, Zeitschrift für Ausländisches Öffentliches Recht und Völkerrecht (ZaöRV), No. 40, 1980.
  • Clapham, A., Human Rights Obligations of Non-State Actors, Oxford University Press, 2006.
  • Cottier, M., “Relevant International Legal Standards: Overview, Use of Force, Mercenaries”, PMC/PSC Workshop, 16-17 January 2006.
  • Dörmann, K.,‘‘The legal situation of ‘‘unlawful/unprivileged combatants’’”, International Review of the Red Cross, Vol. 85, No. 84, March 2003.
  • Droege, C., Private Military and Security Companies and Human Rights – A rough sketch of the legal framework-, document prepared for the Governmental Expert Workshop of 16-17 January 2006.
  • Ero, C., “Vigilantes, Civil Defense Forces and Militia Groups. The other side of the privatization of security in Africa”, Conflict Trend Magazine, 2000.
  • Faite, A., “Involvement of private contractors in armed conflict: Implications under International humanitarian law”, Defence Studies, Vol. 4, No. 2, Summer 2004.
  • Fontaine, R., Nagl., J., Contracting in Conflicts. The Path to Reform, Center for a New American Security, July 2010.
  • Gaultier, L., Hovsepian, G., Ramachandran, A., Wadley, I., Zerhdoud, B., The mercenary issue at the commission on human rights. The need for a new approach, International Alert, 2001.
  • Gillard, E-C., “Business goes to war: private military/security companies and international humanitarian law”, IRRC, Vol. 88, No. 863, September 2006.
  • Gómez del Prado, J.L., Torroja, H., Hacia la regulación internacional de las empresas militares y de seguridad privadas, Centro de Estudios Internacionales (CEI), Marcial Pons, 2011.
  • Isenberg, D., Soldier of Fortune, Ltd.: A Profile of Today’s Private Sector Corporate Mercenary Firms, Center for Defense Information Monograph, November 1997.
  • Krahmann, E., Private Security Companies and the State Monopoly on Violence: A case of Norm Change?, Peace Research Institute Frankfurt (PRIF), Report No. 88, 2009.
  • Lanigan, K., “Legal Regulation of PMSCs in the United States: The Gap between Law and Practice”, Sicherheit und Frieden, Fall 2008.
  • Lazala, M., “Private military and security companies and their impacts on Human Rights in contexts other than war”, Business & Human Rights Resource Centre, January 2008.
  • Lehnardt, C., Proposals for possible guidelines and basic principles encouraging further respect and protection of human rights on the part of PMCs, in http://www.unwg.rapn.ru/.
  • Moesgaard, C., “Weak international response to the use of private military security companies”, Danish Institute for International Studies (DIIS) Policy Brief, March 2011.
  • Rubin, E., “Mercernaries” in Gutman, R & Reiff, D. (dir.) Crimes of War: What the Public Should Know, 1999.
  • Ryngaert, C., “Litigating Abuses Committed by Private Military Companies”, European Journal of International Law (EJIL), Vol. 19, 2008.
  • Sandoz, Y., “Private security and international law”, in Cilliers, J & Mason, P. (eds), Peace, Profit or Plunder? The privatization of Security in War-Torn African Societies, 1999.
  • Saura, J., “Las empresas militares y de seguridad privadas ante el derecho internacional de los derechos humanos: su actuación en el conflicto Iraquí, Revista Electrónica de Estudios Internacionales (REEI), No. 19, 2010.
  • Scahill, J., -Blackwater: The rise of the world’s most powerful   mercenary army, Nation Books, 2007.
  • Schreier, F., Caparini, M., Privatising Security: Law, Practice and Governance of Private Military and Security Companies, Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces (DCAF), Occasional Paper Nº 6, March 2005.
  • Singer P.W.” The Private Military Industry and Iraq, Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces (DCAF), Policy Paper November 2004.
  • Tonkin, H., State Control over Private Military and Security Companies in Armed Conflict, Cambridge Studies in International and Comparative law, Nº 84, August 2011.
  • Walther, P., The legal status of private contractors under international humanitarian law, thesis, University of Copenhagen, 2007.
  • Young Pelton, R., Licensed to Kill: Hired Guns in the War on Terror, Crown, 2006.
  • Tonkin, H., State control over private military and security companies in armed conflict, Cambridge University Press, 2011.
  • White, N.D., “The Privatisation of Military and Security Functions and Human Rights: Comments on the UN Working Group’s Draft Convention” Human Rights Review, Vol. 11, No 1, 2011.
  • Zarate, J.C., “The emergence of a new Dog of War: Private International Security Companies, International Law and the New World Disorder”, Stanford journal of International Law, Vol. 34, No. 1, 1998.
  • Zenko, M., “It`s hard to say goodbye to Iraq”, Foreign Affairs, July 28, 2011.