Montreux Five Years On is a report created by The Center for Human Rights and Humanitarian Law, with the collaboration of the International Coalition Control PMSC. It assesses a number of participating States’ efforts to meet their commitments under the ‘Montreux Document on pertinent international legal obligations and good practices for States related to operations of private military and security companies during armed conflict’which was the result of an initiative launched jointly by the Swiss government and the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC).

Montreux Five Years On finds that, in terms of demonstrated compliance with legal obligations and the implementation of Good Practices, progress has been mixed. Some States have done well in some areas, whereas others lag behind. The report provides recommendations, including the need to ensure better oversight and accountability for PMSCs and their personnel and improve victims’ ability to access justice.

The private military and security industry has experienced an unprecedented expansion, primarily in conjunction with the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. A number of high profile incidents of alleged misconduct drew attention to the limitations of existing legal and regulatory frameworks to ensure adequate control of PMSCs and their personnel. While there are a variety of well-known incidents, like Abu Ghraib or Nisour Square, there are other allegations of abuse occurring today which do not receive similar attention.